After this test, the person receives an oral dose 75 grams of glucose. Read how diet and exercise can help manage type 2 diabetes. You should see it in your inbox very soon. Some NHS clinics accept self referral enquiries from patients directly to establish if they meet the eligibility criteria for accessing the service. This leads to increased urine glucose, which in turn leads to excessive loss of fluid and electrolytes in the urine.
Explore: Type 2
Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults. People with type 1 diabetes need life-long insulin therapy. Type 2 diabetes is much more common. It can be managed through diet, exercise, and medication. Instead, the glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in high blood sugar.
Insulin resistance is responsible for most cases of type 2 diabetes. Here are the most common:. Type 2 diabetes can sneak up on you. But there are several signs of type 2 diabetes to watch for. Early indicators include increased urination, thirst, and hunger. Over time, excess sugar in the bloodstream can lead to other symptoms, including slow-to-heal wounds and frequent infections. If you develop any of these symptoms of type 2 diabetes , talk to your doctor.
Several tests may be used for diagnosing diabetes. A simple blood test known as a hemoglobin A1C or glycated hemoglobin test measures average blood glucose levels over the past three months.
Because glucose attaches to a protein called hemoglobin in red blood cells, and those cells get recycled and replenished about every three months. A normal A1C is below 5. A higher percentage reflects higher blood glucose levels. Prediabetes is defined as a reading of 5. A fasting plasma glucose test measures blood glucose at a single point in time. Generally, this test is performed first thing in the morning before breakfast, after at least eight hours of fasting.
It is mostly used to diagnose gestational diabetes. First, blood is drawn after an overnight fast. Then you drink a special glucose solution, and your blood is drawn again two hours later. A random or casual plasma glucose test may be performed any time you have diabetes symptoms. These tests cannot distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Generally, people with type 1 diabetes are diagnosed as children, teens, or young adults, while type 2 diabetes usually occurs in adults 45 and older. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, so an autoantibody test may be done to help a doctor determine if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is treated through diet, exercise, and medication. The goal of treatment is to keep blood sugar under control and stave off diabetes complications.
Some people manage through diet and exercise alone. Others need oral medicines, insulin, other injectable medications, or some combination of type 2 diabetes med—along with healthy food and fitness—to keep blood sugar in check.
There are lots of treatment options. What your doctor prescribes may depend on what other health conditions you have and how well certain medications work for you. No treatments can cure diabetes. But this chronic condition can be controlled, and sometimes symptoms even disappear for periods of time. Remember, type 2 diabetes develops gradually as the cells in the body resist insulin or the pancreas fails to make enough of it. Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM , but the disease can have an onset at any age, increasingly including childhood.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus most commonly develops in adulthood and is more likely to occur in people who are overweight and physically inactive. Unlike type 1 diabetes which currently cannot be prevented, many of the risk factors for type 2 diabetes can be modified. For many people, therefore, it is possible to prevent the condition.
The International Diabetes Foundation highlight four symptoms that signal the need for diabetes testing: To learn more, visit the Knowledge Center articles about symptoms or diagnosis. Insulin resistance is usually the precursor to type 2 diabetes - a condition in which more insulin than usual is needed for glucose to enter cells. The impairment stimulates the pancreas to make more insulin but eventually the pancreas is unable to make enough to prevent blood sugar levels from rising too high.
Genetics plays a part in type 2 diabetes - relatives of people with the disease are at a higher risk, and the prevalence of the condition is higher in particular among Native Americans, Hispanic and Asian people. Obesity and weight gain are important factors that lead to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, with genetics, diet, exercise and lifestyle all playing a part.
Body fat has hormonal effects on the effect of insulin and glucose metabolism. Once type 2 diabetes has been diagnosed, health care providers can help patients with a program of education and monitoring, including how to spot the signs of hypoglycemia , hyperglycemia and other diabetic complications. As with other forms of diabetes, nutrition and physical activity and exercise are important elements of the lifestyle management of the condition.
For more information on how type 1 and type 2 diabetes compare, read our article: Diabetes UK, Can you reduce your risk of diabetes?
International Diabetes Federation, About diabetes , accessed 18 September American Diabetes Association, Type 2 , accessed 18 September CDC, Basics about diabetes , accessed 18 September MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.
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