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Practice Quiz: Urinary System Anatomy and Physiology

Urinary Incontinence in Children
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I have a little chinese crested who is full of life and always happy go lucky girl, but with that said yesterday I noticed she was a little off.

And she seems to be completely alert and happy unless I pick her up to go outside. And is having a hard time urinating and she also had an accident in her bed last night. Which never happens and very out of character for her. Thank you for your time …cat. Hopefully your little spitfire is on the mend. You can read more here. Some husky owners call this the zoomies.

He then surprisingly had an accident after being outside not long before on the basement floor. His urine was pinkish in color and I am most certain that he mustve strained something while trying to be a ninja dog because I have an accident tarp downstairs that he uses when I have a 12 hour shift and had to clean up a couple of spots that were regular in color and smell the night before.

I let him out again and I could see a small clot that was in his urine and the pee was almost clear this time otherwise. Is this something I need to run to the vet for immediately or can I give it a chance to heal normally??

Given your long shifts, he may be trying to hold it and that is causing him some issues. Because you have seen it twice, a trip to the vet would be a good idea to see what is going on here in the early stage of things. I have a 5-year old female miniature long-haired Dachshund. She is very lovely, except that she occasionally pees on the leather chair that she has claimed as her own. There are blankets on the chair, and she pees on the blankets.

By occasionally, I mean once every 4 to 6 weeks. During the day, she goes outside to pee every couple of hours. During the night, she sleeps with me and lasts 8 to 10 hours with no problems. Does this sound like it could be a urinary tract infection?

Or is it more likely behavioral? Would Saskatoon berries work the same? It sounds more like a behavioral issue. It would be more frequent if it was a urinary tract infection. Maybe you are not able to get the smell entirely out of the leather chair and that is triggering her to do it again. Google about getting urine smells out of leather to see what ideas they have that will not mark the leather.

Then maybe put a pee pad under the blankets when you are not sitting in the chair to catch even more of the pee. My dog has been dribbling pee here and there small amounts.

He has been peeing just fine, and has been drinking about the same amount of water as normal. Could this be a mild UTI, or a sign of something else? He is about 5 years old and has been neutered for 2 and a half years. Hormone-induced dribbling is the most common, though generally more so in females than males. After a pet is spayed or neutered, the hormones estrogen and testosterone which help close the external urethral sphincter are no longer available.

This can result in urine dribbling. Without knowing the specific cause of the dribbling, it would be hard to suggest a remedy. Would changing the dog food on my dog who has history of urinary tract infections cause her to get another infection? She is showing signs of blood in urine and I changed her food about 1 week ago. Still grain free good ingredients. She will be making a trip to the vet today.

It seems that every time I have my dog at the sitter for especially long work days every once in a while she seems to need to go out constantly the next day. She will squat repeatedly and nothing will come out.

I started taking her to the sitter for long days because she started peeing in the house if I was gone more than hours. My dog is a lab-pit mix, 45lbs, 8 years old. Could she just be becoming incontinent already?

Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria that either enter the bladder through the blood or that travel from the outside up the urethra. Is your dog crated at her house where she is constantly in contact with something that is affecting her?

Is she happy there? Stress can play a factor sometimes. You could try cleaning her when she comes home with a mild soap and water mixture to see if that changes anything. Could you train her to pee on a pee pad during long days away? He was neutered about 3 months ago and since then the condition seems to have worsened.

It is never a huge amount of pee but it is enough to make a small puddle on the floor. He licks his genitals when this happens but other than that, he seems healthy and comfortable. Any ideas on what may be taking place?

And ideas on helping with whatever is taking place? Urinary incontinence post-neuter can happen. Testosterone helps control the tone of the sphincter muscles of the bladder. Usually the testosterone produced in the adrenal glands is enough to keep incontinence from happening, but not always. If the urinary incontinence is due to the lack of sufficient testosterone hormones, treatment is simple; the dog can be treated with a non-hormonal medication known as PPA or Phenylpropanolamine.

Typically, dogs respond well to medication. Hello, I have a 10 week old goldendoodle male who has peed himself in his sleep a few times now. He also pees small amounts very frequently, about twice an hour he has to be taken out. I think he may have a UTI but his vet does not have any appointments until next week. It does not seem to hurt him while he pees but he is licking himself pretty often. I was wondering if there is anything I can do in the meantime. There are things it could be other than UTI.

That simply makes matters worse and confuses him. That may explain why he seems to be doing it often. Even a dribble can trigger the licking. So if he is eating and drinking normally and his activity level is good, I would wait for the vet to check him out. About two months ago we did a round of antibiotic 2x a day for 14 days and now we are back to licking ourself after going potty, restlessness, super frequent urination.

I noticed in a prior post that you suggested Fish-flex I hate to keep taking her to the vet is this something I can give her OTC if I catch it early enough?

Will the fish flex help? Dogs should have a pH of between 5. This is slightly acidic. When the pH goes above 7. But grain-based, starchy, processed commercial pet food helps turn the urine more alkaline. So you might rethink her food. If you are feeding her just dry food, add some quality canned food to it. You can buy Fish-Flex over the counter where fish are sold, but if this is a recurring problem, you may want to consider her diet.

Longterm antibiotic usage could lead to an antibiotic resistance. It also depletes all bacteria in the gut — good and bad. You can buy pH test strips and test her urine at different times of the day to see what her pH is and go from there.

She states that the combination of the amino acid and cranberry extract have served as an effective antibiotic alternative. Her dosing suggestion for methionine is milligrams twice daily for small and medium dogs and milligrams twice daily for larger dogs.

Cranberry extract can be given to small dogs at a dose of milligrams, medium dogs at milligrams, large dogs at milligrams and giant breeds at milligrams, three times daily. Hi, My puppy has been peeing a lot lately. She will pee a large amount and then later only a few drops come out. She does this several times.

Should I give her some cranberry or orange juice? Thank you for the help. Is she straining to pee the few drops? Does she lick herself only after peeing just a few drops. This could indicate some discomfort. Have you seen any blood in any of her pee? Drinking a lot will contribute to peeing a lot, but if the few drops behavior continues, you should have your vet check her out.

It could be that you can just provide them with a urine sample to test. If you try the cranberry juice, you may put it in a separate bowl away from her usual water bowl. Hi, my female dog and I have been up since 4: She is needing to go out very frequently and is only peeing a little at a time. What can I do to help relive her in the mean time? Pet smart opens at 9: She is also in pain so she needs something for that as well! She is about 65 pounds! Antibiotics like Cephalexin are the most common treatment for UTIs due to their ability to destroy and inhibit the growth of bacteria.

You can buy it over-the-counter where fish products are sold. Check to see if they sell Buffered Aspirin at PetsMart. That may help with her pain temporarily until you can get something better from your vet. UTIs are very painful. You have helped me in the past with my dogs urinary tract problem. She has now been diagnosed with hip dysplasia and she is not even 2 yet. She is getting a shot to help the cartilidge but we can still see she hurts at times.

If there is a holistic vet in your area, check with them as there are alternatives to synthetic meds. Some synthetics may not be suitable for longterm use. There is more info on natural remedies at this link.

Remember that it will take longer to see results from natural remedies, so give them a couple months. In healthy pets, the urine pH is typically in the 6. If the pH is acidic pH below 6 or alkaline pH above 7 , it may allow bacteria to thrive and crystals or stones to form. You will need to test a couple times a day. The dosage depends on the product that you use. All created for dogs and cats.

So the best suggestion I have is to follow the dosage on the label for the product you decide on. Can I give her my antibiotics for previous kidney issues but in much smaller dosages? My 4 month old staffy pup has a uti he is Peeing a? He was sort o crying a couple of times when Peeing, but both always.

I will buy him cranberry pills tomorrow. What dosage is he mènt to get of the trimithapin? Please help I love my wee Bailey baby so much. Is he drinking more water than normal? I ask because you said he is peeing a lot. Is he actually peeing a lot or attempting to pee often?

The reason I ask is because I wonder: They will generally include a pain reliever, too. If you have ever had a bladder infection, you know they are painful. That is probably why he is crying — from pain. In this case, I would recommend that you have your vet check him out. I had a hard time finding the tablet but he weighs 20pds so how or what do i do to give him the capsule?

Will it hurt to give him the whole capsule like once a day or what? There should be a dosage chart on the bottle that will help you determine how much for 20 lbs. It can be toxic if given in too high a dose. I suggest you use it for days in a row when it seems like an infection is brewing, but I would not use it long term.

It can cause a reduction in potassium levels if used long term. My 11 Yorkie age 8 has a uti each year. This year Im stressed financially and I bought Nux Vomica 30c pills. The directions online vary. Also heard of Arnica Montana, but how much when.. She wont d3rink cranberry juice. My understanding is that Nux Vomica works for removing toxins in her system. Their dosage recommendation is: Give one dose every 30 minutes or more frequently if symptoms are severe.

Reduce dosage to one time a day. Stop when you see improvement and do not repeat again until symptoms recur. Arnica is usually used for dogs with muscle aches, strains and other associated injuries.

It has also been used on dogs with emotional stress and can even aid in the rehabilitation process after dogs have experienced brain or spinal cord injuries. Arnica is not intended for prolonged use as it can, over-time cause adverse side effects. It can also irritate the digestive system. Not a good candidate for a uti. The two brands you suggested make a canned version I think they both do. You might get some canned food from them, too, and just put a bit on top of the dry kibble.

She licks her butt but does not scoot. She has had her anal glands empty and there was not much in them. I am trying to decide on what food to switch her to, there is first mate or Dr. I saw those on chewy. Both sound like good choices. Do you feed her just dry food or do you dress it with a bit of canned on top or even moisten her dry food?

Thank you so much for the advice. I am using the purina urinary dry dog food it is what the vet says she needs I had her on just a grain free before the bladder infections got bad and he frowned on it. I will google and see what food I can find.

I will continue the yogurt and methigel…thank you. The vet has her on fish oil pills as well. I have bought so many things to try and help her, she constantly licks her bottom which tell me she is having a flare up. Thank you again for the advice! Does she also scoot her butt or just lick?

Scooting can indicate an issue with anal sacs — which is generally related to diet. She started with urinary tract infections at 14 weeks old. She has had 4 since. The vet put her on purina urinary tract dog food, and multiple rounds of antibiotics and no table food or treats. Every time we go back for check up she still has traits of infection.

I give her fish oil, yogurt and cranberry pill every day plus just started giving her methigel and solid gold berry. Any other advice would be much appreciated. Have you tried using test strips to determine the pH level of her urine? The pH level indicates the acidity of the urine. If the pH is acidic pH below 6 or alkaline pH above 7 it may allow bacteria to thrive and crystals or stones to form. Throughout the day there are normal pH variations in the urine, especially associated with eating certain foods and medications.

So, one single slightly higher or lower urine pH reading is not alarming if the rest of the tests are within the normal range. With this knowledge, you can adjust her diet and supplements. Though cranberry can discourage bacteria from sticking to the walls of the bladder, it can also affect pH much as food does.

Perhaps try the yogurt and methigel alone for a few weeks and see what effect that has on her pH. Then you can slowly add back in some of the supplements if need be. At least with the test strips, you can see what your changes are doing. You might also check into a grain-free urinary dog food. One of the Purina urinary foods uses corn as its first ingredient. I have really enjoyed reading all of the post and replies ,seams they were all helpful in some way or another.

I think that would best be left for a vet to diagnose. They can run tests to determine the difference. Is he drinking lots of water also? Can you see the pee? Does it look just clear or yellowish? Has he been out in the heat? Maybe you can take him out more often — every couple hours, then start doing this a little less often. Maybe he has forgotten his training. I am alarmed by your comments about grapefruit and its toxicity to dogs.

Are you referring to Grapefruit Seed Extract as well? There are many websites that indicate GSE is beneficial and safe for use in dogs. I have used it on my dogs and now I am concerned. There are likely many people who feed their dogs grapefruit without incident, and maybe in the processing of Grapefruit Seed Extract, the toxic compound psoralen has been modified. You will know if grapefruit is a problem for your dogs if you notice the signs of toxicity: There are other options like blueberries.

I have a 11 year old Maltese mix, diagnosed with crystals or stones in his bladder is there anything I can buy to dissolve those crystals that are in his bladder or does he have to go through the surgery in order for them to be removed. Im giving him cranberry juice but also a little acv to help him urinate. It would depend on why the vet is recommending the surgery. Depending on the patient and the location and size of the stone, there are some other less invasive procedures that might be appropriate.

These include a technique called laser lithotripsy that breaks down stones into smaller pieces that can then be voided out, and a procedure called voiding urohydropropulsion, which is a technique that involves manually expressing stones out through the urethra while the patient is sedated. If he has struvite crystals then you may be able to control it with food.

You can also add supplements like Berry Balance to help or cranberry pills. Many dog owners control struvite crystals with either a raw diet, or a kibble diet.

Struvites form in alkaline urine, so to prevent them you need to keep the pH of the urine more on the acidic side. You should choose a high quality kibble accordingly.

Or even better, a high quality canned food. A pH of 7 is neutral. Everything above 7 is alkaline, and everything below 7 is acidic.

Often people buy pH strips so they can test the urine and make sure it is staying on the acidic side. Also, lots of fluids is important daily to keep the system flushed and moving. But check your water, too. Does it have too many minerals? Some people also use a solution of water and apple cider vinegar to cleanse the pee area on the pup as often crystals often come with infections, like UTIs and bladder infections.

I have a pitbul and she has a kidney infection with some blood in her urine and i would like to know how much cranberry juice or dried cranberries or cranberry sauce to give her she is 4 years old and weighs 75 pounds and how much apple cider vingar to give her and how often on all thank you.

Because she has blood present in her urine, you need to be watchful. If she is going a little, then stopping, then starting again, this is a sign that she is in pain.

She stops because it hurts. This would warrant a trip to the vet, too. You can give her apple cider vinegar by mixing it with water. For a lb dog, mix 1 tablespoon in her water bowl. Because cranberries are a bit tart, an easier way to go is to use cranberry extract capsules. Hi, I noticed two days ago now that my 1 and a half year old male pitbull is having trouble urinating. He takes forvever to urinate and very little comes out at a time.

He squats down low and looks uncomfortable doing so. My dog is potty trained but has urinated in the house multiple times inside the house for the last two days. He still has a good appetite and still drinks plenty of water. I did however, mix some cranberry juice no sugar added to his wet food and he did eat it. But drank it while mixed in with his food. How long does it take to see some improvement with his maybe UTI after drinking the cranberry juice? As a result, they will pee multiple times and only a little at a time.

In this case, cranberry will not help. Cranberry creates an environment that makes it more difficult for bacteria to thrive. However, your boy may have crystals and cranberry will not help. So you should have your vet check him out. This may be cheaper as a vet tech may be able to perform the test. Collect a urine sample in the morning in a clean container and take it in to your vet for evaluation.

The sooner you get it to the vet, the better. Morning samples are best as they are the most concentrated and reflect what is going on with the bladder. Your vet can prescribe the appropriate antibiotic. And they may recommend a change in his diet. It can also be painful. AZO is not recommended for dogs. You could try a cranberry extract chewable for dogs usually at petsmart or pet stores.

Encourage her to drink more to flush her bladder. You can do this by adding water to her food or purchasing her food in canned formula to increase flushing of the bladder. But this should not be done for long term.

Can cranberry capsules be given to 12 week old puppies? I adopted a Boxmas and she was urinating all over the place yesterday and had blood in her urine today. I took her to the vet and he prescribed antibiotics. Is it okay to give a puppy cranberry capsule?

You can but because of her small size, dosing can be difficult so you risk altering the pH of her urine to be too acidic. This can create new problems. What dosage of cranberry capsule for my 13kg dog prone to cystitis.

Would u recommend wiping her with baby wipes after urinating? You can buy testing strips that you touch to her urine stream to monitor.

You can certainly try them. You might also add some moist food to her diet as the increased moisture should make her urinate a bit more and flush out her kidneys more often so bacteria will not have time to form and grow.

Generally, the vet will prescribe an amoxicillin-based antibiotic like clavamox. The bladder serves as the storage tank, stowing the urine until emptied through micturition urinating. The act of emptying the bladder requires significant coordination between the brain, nerves, and muscles. There are two major muscles involved in urination, the detrusor and the sphincter. The detrusor is a large muscle which contracts to squeeze urine out of the bladder, and the sphincter is a group of muscles which remains contracted to keep urine in the bladder.

These two muscles must work in concert, one contracting while the other relaxes, to control the flow of urine. Dysfunction in either may result in some degree of loss of urinary control. The urethra serves as the canal which carries the urine from the bladder during voiding. Achieving bladder control must be learned, and some children learn earlier than others, and therefore urinary incontinence is normal in most young infants and children, but in older children and adolescents, it is not considered normal.

If your child is younger than 5, don't worry about bedwetting. Many children do not stay dry at night until age 7. Most children outgrow wetting the bed. A single episode of bedwetting should not cause alarm, even in an older child.

If your child is 7 years old or older and wets the bed more than two or three times in a week, a doctor may be able to help.

If both day and night wetting occur after age 5, your child should see a doctor before age 7. What are the different types of urinary incontinence in children? It is easiest to divide childhood enuresis into two groups. Nocturnal enuresis occurs during sleep and diurnal daytime enuresis occurs during waking hours. Nocturnal enuresis is often referred to as bedwetting and is the most common type of urinary incontinence in children over 5 years of age. Diurnal enuresis is more often seen in younger children and more often a result of certain behaviors, though rarely it can be a sign of more serious problems.

Another way to categorize incontinence is by the timing of the symptoms. If a child has good daytime bladder control but has never had a dry night, it is referred to as primary enuresis. Secondary enuresis is incontinence in an individual who has been dry for at least six months and then develops symptoms after that period.

How common is urinary incontinence in children? In addition, nocturnal enuresis is more common in boys, and diurnal incontinence is more common in girls.

Secondary enuresis accounts for about one-quarter of all cases and is most often associated with some psychological stressor or anxiety. What causes nighttime incontinence in children? Any number of normal and abnormal things can cause nocturnal enuresis in children. Boys are more commonly affected than girls. Most young children who suffer from bedwetting are physically and emotionally normal.

Although the exact cause is unknown, the bedwetting is believed to be the result of a number of nonorganic factors, including developmental issues, overproduction of urine, and an inability to respond to the normal physiological signals associated with bladder distension while asleep. In addition to nonorganic causes, there are also some less common organic causes including infection, anatomic abnormalities, neurologic abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities such as diabetes mellitus.

What causes daytime incontinence in children? Common causes of daytime wetting include voluntary holding of urine, urinary tract infection , constipation , and wetting with giggling. Girls are more commonly affected than boys. Less common causes include more serious issues such as neurological causes neurogenic bladder , urinary tract anatomic abnormalities, and diabetes.

Voluntary holding of urine is the most common cause of daytime wetting in young children. This is often observed in 3- to 5-year-olds who don't want to take the time to use the toilet. They are just too busy to take a break and will often fidget, squirm, and hold on to their perineal areas.

Most children grow out of this on their own as they get older. How do you differentiate between organic and nonorganic causes of urinary incontinence? It is important to recognize that most cases of urinary incontinence are caused by nonorganic problems, but since there are organic causes, physicians may evaluate affected children with some basic studies. Evaluation always begins with a complete history and physical exam. This differentiates between the otherwise healthy child and the child with underlying disease.

The clinician will probably ask about psychological stressors, such as starting a new school, the birth of a sibling, or parental strife. In addition, in order to evaluate the severity of the symptoms, parents will be encouraged to keep a voiding diary.

These are diaries which document the number of daytime voids, volumes, timing, and relationship with eating and drinking. In addition, these diaries should document the frequency of daytime wetting or nighttime wetting.

Besides the history, physical, and diary, a urinalysis can be helpful to screen for organic causes, such as diabetes and urinary tract infections. For children with significant daytime symptoms, ultrasound imaging of the urinary tract including bladder and kidneys may be needed to evaluate for anatomic abnormalities.

Lastly and rarely, if a neurological cause is suspected, an MRI of the spine may be indicated to evaluate for spinal cord abnormalities. What is the treatment for urinary incontinence in children? The treatment of urinary incontinence depends upon the underlying cause of the problem. The primary treatment for nocturnal enuresis most commonly involves behavioral modification.

This involves positive reinforcement, encouraging frequent daytime voiding, and periodically waking the child at night, restricting fluid intake prior to bed, and alarm therapy with devices that wake the child when the underwear or bedclothes have become wet. In all cases, most children are already embarrassed by bedwetting and it is important try to reduce the social and psychological impact of the condition.

Moisture alarm therapy has a high success rate and works best for motivated older children and parents. The basic process involves placing a probe in the undergarments or bed which alarms when it senses wetness. Most children will sleep through the alarm; however, most stop voiding when the alarm goes off. The child's parent must get up and help the child to the bathroom to encourage voiding, change the wet sheets and pajamas, and reset the alarm.

Moisture alarms generally work within two weeks to three months and should be discontinued if the child's symptoms persist after three months. In addition to behavioral modification, there are some children who will ultimate require medication. Most commonly used medications include desmopressin acetate DDAVP , oxybutynin chloride Ditropan , hyoscyamine sulphate Levsin , and imipramine Tofranil.

All of these medications have significant potential for side effects, should be reserved for a very select population, and should be used to treat the symptoms not as a cure, while awaiting natural resolution. What is the prognosis of urinary incontinence in children? Where can people get more information on urinary incontinence in children? American Urological Association Foundation http: Urinary incontinence in women is a common problem.

Overactive bladder OAB , stress incontinence, and urge incontinence can be treated. Learn more about the types of urinary incontinence, their symptoms, and treatment options.

Urinary Incontinence in Women: Types, Causes, and Treatments for Bladder Control. Did you or your child have urinary incontinence? Please share tips for coping or dealing with the problem. Multiple sclerosis MS symptoms vary from person to person, and can last for days to months without periods of remission. Symptoms of MS include sexual problems and problems with the bowel, bladder, eyes, muscles, speech, swallowing, brain, and nervous system.

The early symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis usually start between age 20 and MS in children, teens, and those over age 40 is rare.

What Causes UTIs in Women?